Monday, May 17, 2010

Introduction to programming - What is programming?

I've been wanting to write something like this for a long time.
My goal is to try and explain computer programming and more general things about computers in a way that i hope will be interesting even to those who are not particularly interested in learning programming.

So, Let's get started.

What is computer programming?

Well, generally speaking it's about making computers doing whatever you want them to.
This is not to say that I or any other programmer CAN make them do anything we want, actually we work under pretty limited constraints. It is by using these rules, constraints and limitations and manipulating them that the richness of software you see around you can be achieved.

In a way, practically any interaction with a computer system is about understanding, testing and manipulating it's capabilities and its bounds. Every interaction with a computer system carries within it the essence of programming.

The basic job of a programmer is to use their understanding of the internal workings of computers and provide a more natural and intuitive interface so that other people can take their programs and make some use of them.

It's easier to use an example, so let's talk about MS Paint. I am sure pretty much everyone saw or used MS Paint or something that resembles it at some point.
Let's try and take a look at the basics of MS Paint through the eyes of a developer.
We'll be working under an operating system (i.e. windows).

To a programmer an operating system is an environment that provides many many services.
In the same way that when someone wants to draw simple drawings they can open paint, choose a color and click their mouse, programmers receive tools and services from the operating system.
We don't have to worry about controlling the movement of the mouse cursor, controlling the various complicated mechanisms required to draw something on the screen, managing the memory, hard disk or any one of the many components needed to make computers work.

So what do we have to do?
Well, the operating system, along with our programming environment already cover many of the things we want to do. they will provide us with a window to work in, buttons to click and they will let us know when the user clicks the mouse inside our window, they will also tell us where he clicked it, and which button he clicked.
We also get something that can be thought of as a canvas that we can draw things on. To draw something we change the color of a pixel (a pixel is the smallest possible dot we can draw on the screen) to whatever color we want.

A simple recipe for a program that lets you draw with the mouse might look something like this:
1. draw a window 200x200 pixels (there is literally something called a Window or a Form and you can set its size)
2. when the mouse is clicked, change the pixel in the same position as the mouse to the color Black. (you can "ask" the window to let you know whenever someone clicks on it, and where it happened - then you can tell the window to change the color of the pixel at that point)

Doesn't look all that complicated right? that's mostly because it's really not all that complicated. it's not so far from opening paint and clicking the mouse.
Of course, I am oversimplifying certain aspects of what needs to be done - and there are languages and operating systems where doing what I just described is far more complicated.

But it's like saying that it's easier to dig a hole with a shovel then it is with your bare hands - True, but not very interesting :)


In its essence, computer programming is about creating tools for other people. I doubt if any of the people who wrote MS Paint ever really used it, personally i rarely use (other than during development) any of the software I write. What we did in our little programming thought exercise was to take an idea - drawing pictures with your mouse, and used our imagination (albeit limited) and the tools at our disposal, and created something for someone else to draw with.

Now that we know how to manipulate the pixels by changing their color, we don't need something like a mouse if we want to draw things on the screen, but by finding a simple interface other people can easily use we created a simple tool.


So what is computer programming? For me it is about taking our idea's, knowledge and understanding of what computers are and how they work and using it to create tools for (mostly) others to use.
Most professional software developers writing code today do exactly this - they spend their days thinking and writing tools and solving problems so that others can become more productive.

I'd be happy to get your thoughts/questions/comments.

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